The American Civil War (1. The American Civil War (1. U. S. Total number of slaves in the Lower South : 2,3. Total number of slaves in the Upper South: 1,2. Total number of slaves in the Border States: 4.
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Almost one- third of all Southern families owned slaves. In Mississippi and South Carolina it approached one half. The total number of slave owners was 3. Louisiana, some free Negroes). As for the number of slaves owned by each master, 8. The geographical center of the United States lies somewhere near Chillicothe, Ohio. New York City became the largest Irish city in the world with 2.
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Irish- born out of a total population of 8. In a speech to the House of Representatives, Lawrence M. Keitt, Congressman from South Carolina, declares: . Strike down the institution of African slavery and you reduce the South to depopulation and barbarism . The anti- slavery party contend that slavery is wrong in itself, and the Government is a consolidated national democracy. We of the South contend that slavery is right, and that this is a confederate Republic of sovereign States.
Others included William L. Yancey, Edmund Ruffin, Robert Rhett, Louis T.
Wigfall, Nathaniel Beverly Tucker, John A. Quitman, William Porcher Miles, and James Dunwoody Brownson De. Bow, publisher of De.
Bow's Review. The General Assemby of Alabama passes Joint Resolutions, to take effect the election of a Republican to the presidency, including a call for a convention . It is true that all of us—and by that I mean, not the Republican party alone, but the whole American people, here and elsewhere—all of us wish this question settled, wish it out of the way. Japan's Tokugawa government had sent its first official envoys to exchange treaty ratifications based on agreements concluded in 1. Townsend Harris—the first American ambassador to Japan (appointed U.
S. Consul to Japan in 1. Commodore Perry's opening of Japan)—and the Japanese government. The Powhatan carried the seventy- plus Japanese delegation, with its two principal ambassadors, Masaoki Shinmi and Norimasa Muragaki, on to Panama where the delegation crossed the Isthmus of Panama by train, and once again, set sail for Washington, D. C. The arrival of the Japanese was a major event in America. Congress provided a $5. In the course of their travels, the delegation spent three weeks sightseeing in Washington before making official visits to Baltimore, Philadelphia, and finally New York. While in Washington D.
C., the mission paid its official visit to President James Buchanan at the White House, reviewed troops and were entertained by military brass bands. They also visited a session of Congress whose noisy atmosphere, as Ambassador Muragaki humorously remarked, . Baseball's ritual for relieving spectator fatigue—the .
The custom had superstitious origins. It was thought to bring good luck to the home team, since . Joseph, Mo., and Sacramento, Calif. It offered 8- 1. 0- day delivery, with an .
Riders changed horses at 1. The route followed the old emigrant trail to the Platte River, through South Pass to Fort Bridger in Wyoming, then south around the lower end of the Great Salt Lake to Carson City, Nev., and through Donner Pass to Sacramento.
Financially, the service was a failure and ended in October 1. Letters cost $5 an ounce to send, and took 1. San Francisco, California, and St.
Joseph, Missouri. Shortly after the convention began on April 2. Southern Democratic delegations began to press their long- rumored plan to walk out unless a plank calling for passage of a federal slave code for the territories was included in the party platform. Such a code, they hoped, would secure the practice of slavery not only in the North, but in the largely unsettled areas of the expanding nation. The Convention was deeply divided.
Stephen Douglas was the clear favorite of Northen Democrats, while Southerners demanded that the Democratic party come out with a platform in clear defense of slavery. Southern delegates were already opposed to Douglas, the party's leading candidate, over his Freeport Doctrine—a concept Douglas put forth during the Lincoln- Douglas debates of 1. Moreover, the . When Douglas' anti- slavery plank was finally voted into the platform over a previous vote in favor of a pro- slavery plank, 5. Southern delegates made good their promise and dramatically walked out of the convention. The loss of those 5.
Douglas the nomination. The convention went through 5. Douglas failed to acheive the needed 2/3 of the votes.
The remaining Northern Democrats voted to adjourn and reconvene in June in Baltimore. The Constitutional Union Party, a short- lived political group, was a haven in the election of 1. Whigs and Know- Nothings unwilling to join northern or southern Democrats or the Republicans. The Constitutional Union party had its genesis in Democratic divisions over the Lecompton constitution, the collapse of the Whigs, and the problems of the American, or Know- Nothing party. The Whigs' collapse had left anti- Democratic southerners adrift without a political party. Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky, Henry Clay's successor in border- state Whiggery, set up a meeting among fifty conservative, pro- compromise congressmen in December 1. Baltimore on May 9, 1.
Its members nominated for president John Bell of Tennessee, a border- state Whig and large slaveholder who had opposed the Kansas- Nebraska Act and the Lecompton constitution, and for vice president Edward Everett, president of Harvard University and a former secretary of state and Cotton Whig in the Fillmore administration, on a platform of . They carried the three border slave states of Virginia (1. Kentucky (1. 2), and Tennessee (1. Bell and many other Constitutional Unionists later supported the South during the Civil War, and the party and its purpose disappeared. The Republicans assembled their national convention in Chicago's . The delegates considered three top candidates: William H.
Seward, Salmon P. Chase, and Abraham Lincoln.
Republican Party leadership of 1. Lincoln's politically pristine background and . They also saw Abe as the only candidate who could deliver votes from the . On the second evening of the convention, delegates were treated to a performance of the play Our American Cousin at Chicago's Mc. Vicker's Theater. In 1. 86. 5, Lincoln would be assassinated while watching the same play in Ford's Theater.
The delegates adopted a party platform considered more moderate than their 1. Slavery and polygamy were no longer referred to as . Nominations were offered on the third day of the convention, May 1.
After three ballots, none of the candidates had received the 2. Lincoln came close (2. Ohio delegates changed their four votes from Ohio favorite son, Salmon P. Chase to Lincoln, making Honest Abe the Republican presidential nominee.
Democrats reconvene in Baltimore, Maryland. The adherents of Stephen A. Douglas complete the destruction begun at Charleston by refusing to seat the Yancey delegation from Alabama. Deep South delegates again withdraw from the Democratic Convention.
The Constitutional Democratic Party is organized under guidance of William L. Yancey, and John C. Breckinridge was nominated for the Presidency.
The fiery Yancy says, . Touch not the honor of my section of the country, and she will not complain of almost anything else you may do; but touch her honor and equality and she will stand up in their defence, if necessary in arms.
No matter who may be elected, no matter what may be done, still they (the North) will stand to the Union as the great cause of their prosperity. Reagan of Texas publishes a letter pointing out, among other things, the Northern desire to .
Gist asks the legislature for a state convention if the Republicans win the election. Breckinridge (Southern Democratic Party), and John Bell (Constitutional Unionist Party). Of the total 4,6. Lincoln received 1,8. Lincoln won an overwhelming Electoral College victory: 1. Mason/Dixon line.
He received no electoral votes in 1. Southern states. Lincoln's opponents together totaled 2,8. Lincoln's Vice President was Hannibal Hamlin of Maine. Georgia Governor Joseph E.
Brown delivers his long Special Message on Federal Relations encouraging separate state action on secession rather than waiting for a convention of Southern states to jointly decide the issue. His message points out, among many positive issues, Southern economic strength and it ends with . Pettus issued a call for a special session of the legislature on November 2. Pettus advises a secession convention be called, and a bill was passed dealing with elections of delegates, setting dates, etc.
Congress Convenes. The 3. 6th Congress of the United States, second session, begins in Washington, D. CDecember 4, 1. 86. Buchanan's Annual Message to Congress.
President James Buchanan delivers his annual message to Congress, blaming fanatical abolitionism for destroying the country. He admits the sovereignty of each state but that the Federal Government would defend the forts if attacked. He said slavery was on the way out, and he proposed a constitutional amendment protecting property rights in slaves. He condemned secession and said the election of one of our countryman was no legitimate reason to leave the Union, but he admitted he had no power to coerce a state. Seward writes to his wife that Buchanan showed . House of Representatives composed of one representative from each of the 3. The Chairman of the Committee, Ohio Rep.
Thomas Corwin, reports a slavery protection amendment on January 4, 1. A South Carolina delegation of U. House Representatives warns President Buchanan not to attempt reinforcement of Fort Sumter, which would be an act of coercion and war. The delegation presented Buchanan with a written statement promising not to attack the forts but admonishing him not to try to reinforce them. The South Carolinians got the impression there would be no change in the military situation in Charleston Harbor, and they promised to try and prevent any accidental confrontation.